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Optimistic estimates place computing power equivalence to human brain functions at around or before 2030. Appropriate Al software may or may not be ready by then. A more conservative date would place the readiness of human equivalent Al robots at around 2050.

But there is no reason why all robots would have to have full human equivalent intelligence. If robots are going to be used for specific tasks only, then they could presumably be programmed with that level of intelligence or capability only.

Robots designated for mental tasks could be programmed with a full range of general purpose capabilities but at a lower processing speed, equivalent to a low human IQ.

It is assumed that most general purpose robots could be designated to perform most clerical tasks, mental tasks, most manufacturing production line tasks, and similar tasks. Any tasks that include elements of risk or danger would also be primarily targets for robot workers.

It seems reasonable to assume that creative tasks like acting, journalism, fiction writing, and politics, executive management, policing, doctors, etc., would remain with the realm of humans.

But for the majority of jobs currently performed by human robots should have adequate intelligence to complete the same tasks with equal or greater efficiency.

If their intelligence is equivalent to humans, then robots will also be self-aware.To what extent will this be a problem? Could it be construed that robots have become slaves? To what extent could robots be programmed to suppress selfawareness, and if that were possible, then how much would that affect their ability to complete their work tasks with the same competence as their human owners?

As time passes further processor developments will enable robots to have much higher intelligence than humans. This is likely to create at least two classes of robots, one set designed to work in place of their owners, and the other to exist as free individuals. Issues may need to be resolved though. Should such free robots be permitted to work as themselves and receive income? Should free robots be permitted to own lesser robots to work for them?

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